CRATAEGUS AZAROLUS.--South Europe, 1640. This is a very
vigorous-growing species, with a wide, spreading head of rather
upright-growing branches. The flowers are showy and the fruit large and
of a pleasing red colour.
C. AZAROLUS ARONIA (_syn C. Aronia_).--Aronia Thorn. South Europe,
1810. This tree attains to a height of 20 feet, has deeply lobed leaves
that are wedge-shaped at the base, and slightly pub
scent on the under
sides. The flowers, which usually are at their best in June, are white
and showy, and succeeded by large yellow fruit. Generally the Aronia
Thorn forms a rather upright and branchy specimen of neat proportions,
and when studded with its milk-white flowers may be included amongst
the most distinct and ornamental of the family.
C. COCCINEA.--Scarlet-fruited Thorn. North America, 1683. If only for
its lovely white flowers, with bright, pinky anthers, it is well worthy
of a place even in a selection of ornamental flowering trees and
shrubs. It is, however, rendered doubly valuable in that the
cordate-ovate leaves turn of a warm brick colour in the autumn, while
the fruit, and which is usually produced abundantly, is of the
C. COCCINEA MACRANTHA.--North America, 1819. This bears some resemblance
to the Cockspur Thorn, but has very long, curved spines--longer, perhaps,
than those of any other species.
C. CORDATA is one of the latest flowering species, in which respect it
is even more hardy than the well-known C. tanace-tifolia. It forms a
small compact tree, of neat and regular outline, with dark green
shining leaves, and berries about the same size as those of the common
species, and deep red.
C. CRUS-GALLI.--Cockspur Thorn. North America, 1691. This has large
and showy white flowers that are succeeded by deep red berries. It is
readily distinguished by the long, curved spines with which the whole
tree is beset. Of this species there are numerous worthy forms,
including C. Crus-galli Carrierii, which opens at first white, and
then turns a showy flesh colour; C. Crus-galli Layi, C. Crus-galli
splendens, C. Crus-galli prunifolia, C. Crus-galli pyracanthifolia, and
C. Crus-galli salicifolia, all forms of great beauty--whether for their
foliage, or beautiful and usually plentifully-produced flowers.
C. DOUGLASII.--North America, 1830. This is peculiar in having dark
purple or almost black fruit. It is of stout growth, often reaching to
20 feet in height, and belongs to the early-flowering section.
C. NIGRA (_syn C. Celsiana_).--A tree 20 feet high, with stout branches,
and downy, spineless shoots. Leaves large, ovate-acute, deeply incised,
glossy green above and downy beneath. Flowers large and fragrant, pure
white, and produced in close heads in June. Fruit large, oval, downy,
and yellow when fully ripe. A native of Sicily, and known under the
names of C. incisa and C. Leeana. This species must not be confused
with a variety of our common Thorn bearing a similar name.
C. OXYACANTHA.--Common Hawthorn. This is, perhaps, the most ornamental
species in cultivation, and certainly the commonest. The common wild
species needs no description, the fragrant flowers varying in colour
from pure white to pink, being produced in the richest profusion. Under
cultivation, however, it has produced some very distinct and desirable
forms, far superior to the parent, including amongst others those with
double-white, pink, and scarlet flowers.
C. OXYACANTHA PUNICEA flore-pleno (Paul's double-scarlet Thorn), is one
of, if not the handsomest variety, with large double flowers that are
of the richest crimson. Other good flowering kinds include C.
Oxyacantha praecox (Glastonbury Thorn); C. Oxyacantha Oliveriana; C.
Oxyacantha punicea, with deep scarlet flowers; C. Oxyacantha rosea,
rose-coloured and abundantly-produced flowers; C. Oxyacantha foliis
aureis, with yellow fruit; C. Oxyacantha laciniata, cut leaves; C.
Oxyacantha multiplex, double-white flowers; C. Oxyacantha foliis
argenteis, having silvery-variegated leaves: C. Oxyacantha pendula, of
semi-weeping habit; C. Oxyacantha stricta, with an upright and stiff
habit of growth; C. Oxyacantha Leeana, a good form; and C. Oxyacantha
C. PARVIFOLIA.--North America, 1704. This is a miniature Thorn, of slow
growth, with leaves about an inch long, and solitary pure-white flowers
of large size. The flowers open late in the season, and are succeeded
by yellowish-green fruit.
C. PYRACANTHA.--Fiery Thorn. South Europe, 1629. This is a very
distinct species, with lanceolate serrated leaves, and pinkish or
nearly white flowers. The berries of this species are, however, the
principal attraction, being orange-scarlet, and produced in dense
clusters. C. Pyracantha crenulata and C. Pyracantha Lelandi are worthy
varieties of the above, the latter especially being one of the most
ornamental-berried shrubs in cultivation.
C. TANACETIFOLIA.--Tansy-leaved Thorn. Greece, 1789. This is a very
late-flowering species, and remarkable for its Tansy-like foliage. It
is of unusually free growth, and in almost any class of soil, and is
undoubtedly, in so far at least as neatly divided leaves and wealth of
fruit are concerned, one of the most distinct and desirable species of
Other good species and varieties that may just be mentioned as being
worthy of cultivation are C. apiifolia, C. Crus-galli horrida, C.
orientalis, and C. tomentosum (_syn C. punctata_). To a lesser or
greater extent, the various species and varieties of Thorn are of great
value for the wealth and beauty of flowers they produce, but the above
are, perhaps, the most desirable in that particular respect. They are
all of free growth, and, except in waterlogged soils, thrive well and