=Habitat and Range.=--Bordering on low lands and along streams.
Provinces of Quebec and Ontario.
Maine,--as far north as Mattawamkeag on the middle Penobscot, Dover on
the Piscataquis, and Orono on the lower Penobscot; reported also from
southern sections; Vermont,--Charlotte (Hosford); Massachusetts,--in the
eastern part infrequent; no stations reported in the other New England
South to Pennsylvania, Louisiana, and Texas; west to Michigan and
=Habit.=--Shrub or often a small tree, 20-30 feet high, with trunk 6-12
inches in diameter, often with numerous suckers; branches at 4-6 feet
from the ground, at an acute angle with the stem, lower often horizontal
or declining; head spreading, widest at base, spray short, angular, and
bushy; thorns slender, 1-3 inches long, straight or slightly recurved.
=Bark.=--Bark of the whole tree, except the ultimate shoots, light gray,
on the trunk and larger branches separating lengthwise into thin narrow
plates, in old trees dark gray and more or less shreddy; season's shoots
reddish or yellowish-brown, glossy.
=Winter Buds and Leaves.=--Buds small, ovate, reddish-brown, shining;
scales broad, glandular-edged. Leaves simple, alternate, 3-5 inches
long, light green above, lighter beneath, broad-ovate to
broad-elliptical; rather regularly and slightly incised with fine,
glandular-tipped teeth; apex acute; base wedge-shaped, truncate, or
subcordate; roughish above and slightly pubescent beneath, especially
along the veins; leaf-stalk pubescent; stipules linear,
=Inflorescence.=--May to June. In cymes from the season's growth;
flowers white, 3/4 inch broad, ill-smelling; calyx lobes 5, often
incised, pubescent; petals roundish; stamens indefinite, styles 3-5;
flower stems pubescent; bracts glandular.
=Fruit.=--A drupe-like pome, 1/2-1 inch long, bright scarlet, larger
than the fruit of the other New England species; ripens and falls in
=Horticultural Value.=--Hardy in New England. An attractive and useful
tree in low plantations; rarely for sale by nurserymen or collectors;
propagated from the seed.
1. Winter buds.
2. Branch with thorns.
3. Flowering branch.
4. Flower with part of perianth and stamens removed.
5. Fruiting branch.
=Note.=--The New England plants here put under the head of
Crataegus mollis have been referred by Prof. C. S. Sargent to
Crataegus submollis (Bot. Gaz., XXXI, 7, 1901). The new species
differs from the true Crataegus mollis in its smaller ovate leaves
with cuneate base and more or less winged leafstalk, in the smaller
number of its stamens, usually 10, and in its pear-shaped
orange-red fruit, which drops in early September.
It is also probable that C. Arnoldiana, Sargent, new species, has
been collected in Massachusetts as C. mollis. It differs from C.
submollis in its broader, darker green, more villose leaves which
are usually rounded, not cuneate at the base, in its smaller
flowers, subglobose, not oblong or pear-shaped, crimson fruit with
smaller spreading calyx lobes, borne on shorter peduncles and
ripening two or three weeks earlier, and by its much more zigzag
and more spiny branches, which make this tree particularly
noticeable in winter, when it may readily be recognized from all
other thorn trees.--C. S. Sargent in Bot. Gaz., XXXI, 223, 1901.