LARIX. PINUS. PICEA. TSUGA. ABIES.
Buds scaly; leaves evergreen and persistent for several years (except in
Larix), scattered along the twigs, spirally arranged or tufted,
linear, needle-shaped, or scale-like; sterile and fertile flowers
separate upon the same plant; stamens (subtended by scales) spirally
arranged upon a central axis, each bearing two pollen-sacs surmounted by
a broad-toothed connective; fertile flowers composed of spirally
arranged bracts or cover-scales, each bract subtending an ovuliferous
scale; cover-scale and ovuliferous scale attached at their bases;
cover-scale usually remaining small, ovuliferous scale enlarging,
especially after fertilization, gradually becoming woody or leathery and
bearing two ovules at its base; cones maturing (except in Pinus) the
first year; ovuliferous scales in fruit usually known as cone-scales;
seeds winged; roots mostly spreading horizontally at a short distance
below the surface.